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RAND USA Detailed Background For Demographic and Other Categories


The categories 40 years and over, age-adjusted, 50 years and over, age-adjusted, 40 years and over, and 50 years and over crude rates include all other races not shown separately, unknown poverty level in 1987, unknown health, insurance status, unknown education level, and unknown disability status. Estimates for women 40 and 50 years of age and over, age-adjusted, are modified to the year 2000 standard population.


Race groups include White, Black, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and two or more races, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race Starting with 1999 data. The five single-race categories plus multiple-race categories conform to the 1997 Standards. Starting with 1999 data, race-specific estimates include persons who reported only one racial group; the category two or more races includes persons who reported more than one racial group. Prior to 1999, data were tabulated according to the 1977 Standards with four racial groups, and the Asian only category included Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. Estimates for single-race categories prior to 1999 include persons who reported one race or, if they reported more than one race, identified one race as best representing their race. Starting with 2003 data, race responses of other race and unspecified multiple race were treated as missing, and then race was imputed if these were the only race responses. Almost all persons with a race response of other race were of Hispanic origin.


Health insurance categories are mutually exclusive. Persons who reported both Medicaid and private coverage are classified as having private coverage. Starting with 1997 data, state-sponsored health plan coverage is included as Medicaid coverage. Starting with 1999 data, coverage by the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) is included with Medicaid coverage.


In addition to private and Medicaid, the insured category also includes military plans, other government-sponsored health plans, and Medicare, not shown separately. Persons not covered by private insurance, Medicaid, CHIP, public assistance (through 1996), state-sponsored or other government-sponsored health plans (starting in 1997), Medicare, or military plans are considered to have no health insurance coverage. Persons with only Indian Health Service coverage are considered to have no health insurance coverage.


Education categories shown are for 1998 and subsequent years. GED reflects General Educational Development high school equivalency diploma. In years prior to 1998, the following categories based on number of years of school completed were used: less than 12 years, 12 years, 13 years or more.


Activity limitations are defined as any actions that are performed with difficultly. Complex activity limitations are defined as having one or more of the following limitations or difficulties: movement difficulty, emotional difficulty, sensory (seeing or hearing) difficulty, cognitive difficulty, self-care (activity of daily living or instrumental activities of daily living) limitation, social limitation, or work limitations.